If configured with claims-based authentication provider, SharePoint 2010 and SharePoint 2013 allows you to configure forms-based (cookie) authentication which verifies user accounts by using LDAP simple bind against an AD LDS (formerly ADAM) instance.
I have already spent a great deal of time troubleshooting some AD LDS and SharePoint setups, so here comes my well-tuned bunch of notes and hints and one web.config example that you should be able to adjust according to your needs. The web.config sample is common for central administration, the security token service as well as the web applications, but different parts of the example go into different web.config files. The document also mentions AD LDS access over TLS/SSL breifly. Scripting sample in PowerShell that defines some three user policy entries for a web application is included as well.
Although they are in the form of a simple text file, I hope you can find it helpful:
SharePoint authentication with AD LDS configuration notes